This concept was borne in during the Earth Summit of Rio de Janeiro. It covers the full cycle of information collection, planning in its broadest sense , decision making, management and monitoring of implementation. ICZM uses the informed participation and cooperation of all stakeholders to assess the societal goals in a given coastal area, and to take actions towards meeting these objectives.
ICZM seeks, over the long-term, to balance environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational objectives, all within the limits set by natural dynamics. It means integration of all relevant policy areas, sectors, and levels of administration. In many cases, structural, legal or institutional adjustments to coastal zone management are made only after a calamitous event has occurred.
These adjustments often focus on tackling the most urgent problems without a well-considered long-term strategy. Integrated Coastal Zone Management is aimed at preventing disasters or alleviating their impact and at promoting sustainable development of the coastal zone, taking into account diverse interests and possible futures. A well-informed science-based coastal zone management strategy embedded in an adequate social, institutional and legal framework, can prevent many future coastal problems. As far as the technical aspects are concerned, experienced coastal authorities are capable to overview most of the coastal engineering issues associated with the future developments of the coastal zone.
However, ICZM requires a broader view of coastal issues. ICZM is a governance process for the coastal zone, which differs from usual territorial governance processes due to its specific characteristics:. Because of these particular characteristics many studies and experiments have been carried out for defining a coherent ICZM governance process for coastal zones.
The problems with which coastal zones are confronted often have an insidious character, think, for example, of urban or touristic development, decline of biodiversity or climate change and sea level rise. When problems are perceived as urgent the situation is often already irreversibly deteriorated. Who feels responsible for a well-balanced future-proof development of the coastal zone? At national level, different interests are represented by different sectoral authorities.
Local government is often the only body responsible for weighing and integrating different interests. But the means to do this are limited, because often the situation is that:. These limitations can be overcome, at least in part, by delegating more powers to local authorities and by promoting public participation and involvement of civil society organizations NGOs in coastal policy processes.
The natural and social characteristics of different parts of the coastal zone can be highly diverse. Coastal zone policy can therefore be determined only partly at the national level. The primary focus at the national level is to establish a legal, institutional and administrative framework for integrated coastal zone management.
Of crucial importance is the institutional embedding of the ICZM process. The institutional framework must provide the mandate and resources for the local implementation of ICZM. Implementation of ICZM requires that sufficient powers be delegated to local authorities. This can be a problem in countries with a strongly centralized governance culture. The coastal zone is constantly evolving through natural and socio-economic processes. ICZM should therefore not consist of a one-time static plan or as a series of ad hoc actions, but must be shaped as a continuous process that goes through a fixed cycle according to the schedule:.
The cycle period should be adjusted to the rate at which developments take place in the coastal zone. A cycle of one year may be too short; a cycle of 5 years or 10 years can be more appropriate. The cycle period at the local level may be shorter than at the national level. Monitoring and evaluation are essential process steps to determine which progress has been realized in the implementation of the ICZM plan. This is only possible if measurable indicators and quantitative targets have been defined for this purpose. Defining indicators and targets is a major component of the ICZM plan process.
Various examples of ICZM indicators have been described in the literature. ICZM indicators proposed by Marti et al.
Successful implementation of ICZM is highly dependent on the definition and monitoring of adequate indicators and targets. In small countries with a homogeneous coastal zone natural and socio-economical , local and national level can coincide. This will not be the case for large countries with very diverse coastal zones.
Both at local and national level, sufficient expertise must be available to implement the ICZM policy cycle. At the national level, a coordinating ministry must be designated that steers the policy cycle at the national level. This coordinating ministry should have internally sufficient general ICZM expertise to coordinate coast-related policies of other ministries and be capable to mobilize expertise of public and private organizations on specific topics.
At the local level, a department of local government is responsible for implementation. The staff of this local department should have expertise in the fields of planning, communication, organizing public participation, administrative and technical implementation aspects and cooperation with private parties. Complex infrastructural works and works that transcend the local scale do not fit within the aforementioned scheme.
The steering of design and implementation in these cases lies with institutions at national level that are mandated for this and possess the required expertise. The issue of climate change, which has far-reaching consequences for low-lying coastal areas, in many cases exceeds the local scale in terms of extent and complexity. A national adaptation strategy will be leading here for the development of adaptation measures on a local scale, see the Coastal Wiki article Climate adaptation policies for the coastal zone.
Coastal zone management requires action in many areas related to legal, institutional, social, economic and environmental aspects.
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The coastal zone is not a passive system; every intervention will cause a reaction. The final outcome of the intervention strongly depends on these responses. Therefore, not only excellent planning and engineering expertise is required, but also in-depth knowledge of the natural physical, biological, chemical dynamics of the coastal system and a full understanding of the social, economic, legal, institutional and political context. Examples of factors that must be taken into consideration when planning coastal protection measures are indicated in Table 3.
A large number of actions must be considered to achieve these objectives. An overview of such actions is given in Table 4. A more detailed description of several actions is provided in Coastal Wiki articles that can be accessed by clicking on the internal blue links. Shoreline management plan and implementation Establishment of flood and erosion risk maps Setback lines for hard constructions Ban on urban sprawl along the coast Urban drainage system Flood refuge places Building standards in the coastal zone incl.
Early warning system and organization Regulations for emergency evacuation Rescue organization and equipment. Coastal Management: Global Challenges and Innovations focuses on the resulting problems faced by coastal areas in developing countries with a goal of helping create updated management and tactical approaches for researchers, field practitioners, planners and policymakers.
This book gathers, compiles and interprets recent developments, starting from paleo-coastal climatic conditions, to current climatic conditions that influence coastal resources. Chapters included cover almost all aspects of coastal area management, including sustainability, coastal communities, hazards, ocean currents and environmental monitoring. He has 27 years of teaching and research experience and has served in different capacities in Anna University, M.
An introduction to integrated coastal zone management
Swaminathan Research Foundation and the University of Madras. As the Founding Principal of the University of Madras Constituent College in Nemmeli Village, East Coast Road, Kanchipuram District during , he successfully implemented the introduction of Disaster Education for rural coastal communities to enhance their resilience to disasters. In the aftermath of Indian Ocean Tsunami, he has trained about one thousand school teachers in India and several field practitioners both in India and the Maldives.
Professor Dr. Jonathan is a proficient expertise in the fields of marine geochemistry and trace metal pollution of aquatic environments earned a doctorate in the field of geology from University of Madras, Chennai, India. He is the author of more than 75 research articles in numerous multidisciplinary aspects of coastal pollution in various reputed journals.
With a wide vision to generate a database of pollution status in tourist beaches all over the world, he has accomplished 10 countries till date and it is expanding year by year to other countries. His research interests include geochemical process in aquatic systems, environmental geology, tsunami past and present , GIS applications and innovative approaches in pollution studies. Srinivasalu has more than 30 years of Teaching and research experience. His main research interest lies in Coastal Zone Management. He used coastal stratigraphy to study the recurrence interval of catastrophic coastal flooding events such as tsunami and large storms.
His most significant contributions to the field include characterisation of modern tsunami storm deposits of south-eastern coast of India and western coast of Mexico, Assessment of Heavy metal concentrations in the coastal zones, Mapping of Coastal geomorphology of India, Mineral mapping of ICZM sites of India and Mapping of Ecological Sensitive areas of Tamil Nadu Coast. He is having more than 81 Publications in National and International Journals. His citation index is and h-index is His iindex is He has guided 9 Ph. D students and more than 60 Post Graduate students.
He is a member of many academic and management committees in India and abroad. He has visited 12 countries for various collaborative research programmes in the field of coastal management. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit.
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- An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management / Edition 2.
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