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In other words, they substitute for them. Personal pronouns stand in the place of names of people or things. You use the second singular person 'sen' you when you are informal with somebody, when talking to a close friend or a child. You use the second plural person 'siz' you when you are addressing a person that you are formal with or when you are talking to more than one person.

When you say naslsn, actually, it is sen naslsn. The personal pronoun sen in the beginning which is the subject here is not commonly used. In other words, it stands for the personal pronoun 'sen', which is the subject of this sentence. Similarly, in the other sentence, siz in the beginning is dropped. I'm fine, thank you. The conversation above in an informal way can be: - Selam! Sen naslsn? I'm fine, thanks. Adn ne? Soyadn ne?

Soyadnz ne? Milliyetin ne? Nerede oturuyorsun? Ne i yapyorsun? Ho geldin. Hoa kal. Hoa kaln. The verb 'to be' am, is and are In English, am, is and are are called the forms of the verb to be. They are not main verbs. Some examples are: 'I am tired', 'The car is red' and 'You are beautiful'. In Turkish, there are no words for am, is and are. They exist as suffixes, which are added onto words.

Originally, they are the personal pronouns personal endings used in suffix forms as mentioned previously. Below, you can find the personal pronouns in suffix forms, which are also the forms of to be am, is and are in the present form. Which one to use is subject to 'vowel harmony' rules explained in this unit and extensively in Unit 3. Ben gzelim. I am beautiful. Sen gzelsin. You are beautiful. O gzel dir. Biz gzeliz. We are beautiful. Siz gzelsiniz. They are beautiful. I am Turkish. Also, it is the verb to be here it is am. The endings for the third singular and the third plural person are often omitted and not used in daily language.

They are generally used to make an emphasis or used in public notices or warnings See Unit 4. You use -dir endings also to express general facts, such as 'Kedi bir hayvandr' Cat is an animal. General rules for using these suffixes are shown below: When the last vowel of a word is: i or e the suffix will be with i or a the suffix will be with or the suffix will be with u or o the suffix will be with u Here are some examples with the personal pronouns in suffix forms.

In the examples below, you can also see how the rules for using these suffixes are applied. The personal pronouns and the endings are put in brackets meaning that they are optional to use. Siz retmensiniz. Siz yalnzsnz. Siz ofrsnz. Siz doktorsunuz. When you start learning Turkish, in the beginning you may have difficulty with.

During a conversation, you may use a suffix with a wrong vowel, which may not give the right sound, but still this does not change the meaning of what you are saying. In Turkish, two vowels are not used next to each other. When adding suffixes, letter y mostly is used as a buffer between two vowels All the buffer letters will be discussed in Unit 9. I am fine. We are students. I am a housewife. We are sick. In order to make the negative form of the verb to be am, is, are , you use deil, which means not. The suffixed personal pronouns are added to deil. Ben retmen deilim. I am not a teacher.

Sen ev hanm deilsin. You are not a housewife. Ahmet profesr deil. Ahmet is not a professor. Biz renci deiliz. We are not students. Siz Alman deilsiniz. You are not German. Onlar ngiliz deil ler. They are not British. Question form of the verb to be am, is, are is made by using the question tag mi, m, m or mu. You decide which one to use according to the vowel harmony rules. Ben yakkl mym? Am I handsome? Sen doktor musun? Are you a doctor? Mehmet yorgun mu? Is Mehmet tired? Biz renci miyiz? Are we students?

Siz profesr msnz? Onlar ev hanm m? Are they housewives? The endings for the third singular and the third plural person are explained more in the following units. Is the water cold? Hayr, souk deil. No, it is not cold.

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It is hot. Siz ngiliz misiniz? Are you British? Hayr, biz ngiliz deiliz. Biz Trk'z. No, we are not British. We are Turkish. Ben gzel miyim? Am I beautiful? Evet, ok gzelsin. Yes, you are very beautiful. Yorgun musun? Are you tired? Hayr, yorgun deilim. No, I am not tired. In order to make the negative question form of the verb 'to be', apply the rules to make the negative and the question forms. Ben yakkl deil miyim? Am I not handsome? Sen berber deil misin?

Are you not a barber? Nermin gzel deil mi? Is Nermin not beautiful? Biz renci deil miyiz? Are we not students? Siz profesr deil misiniz? Onlar ev hanm deil ler mi? Are they not housewives? It is not commonly used in a sentence. Aye bir ev hanmdr. Aye is a housewife. Nermin bir rencidir. Nermin is a student. Altan bir doktordur. Altan is a doctor. Ahmet bir profesrdr. Ahmet is a professor. Bu bir elma. This is an apple. O ilgin bir kitap. It is an interesting book. Saylar Numbers 0 sfr 1 bir 2 iki 3 4 drt 5 be 6 alt 7 yedi 8 sekiz 9 dokuz 10 on 11 on bir 12 on iki 13 on 14 on drt 15 on be 16 on alt.

Parts of the numbers are pronounced without saying 'and'. Also, you use a full stop. A noun can also be in plural. In Turkish, to make a noun plural, just add -ler or -lar as a. Apply the vowel harmony rules: When the last vowel of the noun is thin e, i, or , add -ler after the noun.

When the last vowel of the noun is thick a, , o or u , add -lar. See 'Vowel harmony' in Unit 3. When you use a number before a noun, you use the singular form of the noun. Elmalar tatl. The apples are sweet. Flowers are beautiful. When it comes to greetings and some daily expressions, you use the plural forms in Turkish, such as: iyi akamlar good evening iyi geceler good night iyi gnler good day iyi anslar good luck In Turkish, nouns such as glasses, trousers and scissors are singular. They are not used as 'a pair of When they are more than one pair, they can be used in plural.

These words dont comply with the vowel harmony rules when the spelling is concerned. For example: Although the last vowels of the words below are thick vowels a, , o or u , they harmonize with the suffix -ler instead of -lar, because they are pronounced with a soft or long sound. Therefore, you use the suffix -ler to make them plural.

Here are some examples: saat watch, clock, hour saatler watches, clocks, hours protokol protocol protokoller protocols alkol alcohol alkoller alcohols hakikat reality, truth, fact hakikatler realities, truths, facts harf letter character harfler letters. No two vowels next to each other In Turkish, two vowels do not come together as you have learned in this unit.

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However, there are words that use two vowels next to each other. They are the adopted words, which mostly come from Arabic, such as: dair related to, concerning muayenehane doctor's surgery daire circle, apartment maalesef unfortunately maa salary, wage msaade permission fiil verb aile family tabii of course, natural saat watch, clock, hour. Exercises A. Answer the questions. Fill in the blanks with the suitable statements below. Ali "Ben de iyiyim. Siz nerede e? Siz f? Fill in the blanks with suitable sentences. Robert "Nerelisiniz? Robert "retmenim. Fill in the blanks to complete the conversation.

Taner " a? Mary "Londralym. Sen nerelisin? Sen c? Translate the conversation into Turkish. Mary a "Hello! My surname is Tan. Write the statements in Turkish. What are the personal pronouns at the beginning of the sentences below? For example: Ben renciyim. Fransz msnz? Fransz deiliz. Make plurals. Make the statements negative. Su scak. Put the suitable question tags mi, m, m or mu in the blanks to make questions. Is it ugly? Su scak?

Is the water hot? Is it bad? Is she happy? Is it a table? Is it a grape? Is it a chair? Is it a box? Is it good? Is it nine? Turn the statements into negative questions. O irkin. O masa. Answer the questions with yes and no in full sentences. Nermin renci mi? Aye ev hanm m? Ahmet profesr m? Altan doktor mu? Fill in the gaps with the appropriate personal endings. For example: Ben retmenim, sen retmensin, O retmen, etc.

Write the sentences in Turkish. I am not a student. You are not well. She is not happy. We are not friends. You are not ready. They are not fools. Put the appropriate question tag. Biz arkada? Are we friends? Are we not friends? Is she bad? O mutlu? Siz misafir? Are you a quest?

Onlar komu? Are they not neighbours? Sen aptal? Are you a fool? Sen sekreter? Are you a secretary? Are you not a secretary? O akll? Is he intelligent? Write the numbers in Turkish. Practise your vocabulary. Fill in with the corresponding language. Turkish anahtar They bring a present for them from Antalya. They become so happy. They hug and kiss each other. Gler meets Ahmet's family for the first time. Ahmet "Merhaba baba. Ben de iyiyim. Nereden geliyorsunuz? Merhaba anne. Bak bu Gler. Buyurun bu size. Cheek-kissing In Turkey, two women or two men kissing each other on both cheeks is appropriate and a social way to show friendliness among close friends and acquaintances as well as family members.

It is a way of greeting. It has nothing to do with sexual interest. In Turkey, you can even see two men or two women walking arm in arm or holding hands in the street. This is only because they are close friends. Bu ne? Bu araba. This is a car. Bu anta. This is a bag. Bu bavul. This is a suitcase. Bu anahtar. This is a key. Bu ofr.


This is a driver. Bu retmen. This is a teacher. Bu Aye. This is Aye. Bu renci. This is a student. Verbs - The infinitive form of a verb The dictionary form Verb is an element in a sentence, which describes an action, event, occurrence or happening. This ending puts the verb into the dictionary form. This is called the infinitive form of a verb. For example, gel means come. It is the stem of the verb gelmek to come.

In a dictionary, it is as gelmek to come. When the last vowel of the verb stem is thin e, i, or , -mek is added. When the last vowel of the verb stem is thick a, , o or u , -mak is added. When no suffix is added onto a verb, it is the stem of a verb. It is also the imperative form. Derya and Glnaz are talking on the phone. Derya is calling from Bodrum. Derya "Selam. Ne yapyorsun? Ders alyoruz. Ben u anda Bodrum'daym. Pencereden denizi seyrediyorum, Derya mzik dinliyorum, dinleniyorum. Buraya ne zaman geliyorsun?

Yaknda m? Bugn snav iin alyoruz. Yarn snava Glnaz giriyoruz. Ben burada btn gn yzyorum, gneleniyorum. Burada iki gndr yamur yayor. Hava kt. Sonra grrz. Kendine iyi bak. Suffix -iyor, -yor, -yor or uyor is added to the verb stem and the personal ending is added onto it.

These suffixes can refer to the ending -ing in English. This tense is used to describe an action happening now and still going on imdi kitap okuyorum. I am reading a book now. O u anda televizyon seyrediyor. She is watching television at the moment. We are eating now. I am learning Turkish. It may not be just at this moment.

He's taking English lessons. Tlin ngilizce retiyor. Tlin is teaching English. Her gn erken kalkyorum. I get up early every day. Muz seviyorum. I like bananas. Her gn okuyor. She reads every day. Her gn ie gidiyorum. I go to work every day. These sentences literally mean: I am getting up early every day. I am liking bananas. She is reading every day. I'm going to work every day. I am going to London tomorrow. Gelecek aramba konsere gidiyoruz. We are going to a concert next Wednesday. My friend is coming two days later.

Bu akam tiyatroya gidiyoruz. We are going to the theatre this evening. I have lived in Ankara since Saat ikiden beri gneleniyorum. I have been sunbathing since 2 o'clock. I have been learning Turkish for two months. It has been raining for three days. In Turkish, you use the present continuous tense for the above statements, whereas English uses the present perfect tense. Here is the literal translation of the sentences above: I am living in Ankara since I am sunbathing since 2 o'clock.

I am learning Turkish for two months. It is raining for three days. As mentioned before, you usually don't use the personal pronoun at the beginning of a sentence. You can find out what the subject of the sentence is from the suffixed personal ending -um, -sun, -uz or -sunuz. The personal ending is added to -iyor, -yor, -yor or -uyor at the end of the sentence. Instead of saying ben geliyorum I'm coming , you can say geliyorum.

It still means I'm coming. The ending -um added to geliyor refers to ben I. You use the related personal ending for the related person. I am coming. Sen geliyorsun. You are coming. O geliyor. Biz geliyoruz. We are coming. Siz geliyorsunuz. Onlar geliyor lar. They are coming. I am writing. Sen yazyorsun. You are writing. O yazyor. Biz yazyoruz. We are writing. Siz yazyorsunuz. Onlar yazyor lar. They are writing. I am laughing. Sen glyorsun. You are laughing. O glyor. Biz glyoruz. We are laughing. Siz glyorsunuz. Onlar glyor lar. They are laughing. I am running. Sen kouyorsun. You are running.

O kouyor. Biz kouyoruz. We are running. Siz kouyorsunuz. Onlar kouyor lar. They are running. Again, in the sentence below, ben I is optional. The personal ending -um acts as the subject of the sentence, which is also the verb to be am. Also, compare the two. Ben kahve iiyorum. I am drinking coffee. Ben geliyorum. I am -sun Instead of saying 'onlar geliyorlar', you can say 'onlar geliyor'. Here are more examples for the construction of the present continuous tense in Turkish.

I am drinking.


You are looking. He is strolling. We are talking. You are thinking. Yzyor lar. They are swimming. When a verb stem ends in a vowel, the last vowel of the verb stem is dropped before adding -iyor, -yor, -yor or -uyor, because two vowels are not used next to each other. Ben uyuyorum. I am sleeping. Sen uyuyorsun. You are sleeping. O uyuyor. Biz uyuyoruz. We are sleeping.

Siz uyuyorsunuz. Onlar uyuyor lar. They are sleeping. Similarly, e of ye is dropped. I am eating. Sen yiyorsun.

Pass complete!

You are eating. O yiyor. Biz yiyoruz. We are eating. Siz yiyorsunuz. Onlar yiyor lar. They are eating. I am walking. Sen bekliyorsun. You are waiting. O aryor. Biz oynuyoruz. We are playing. Siz temizliyorsunuz. You are cleaning. Onlar okuyor lar. They are reading. It is written and read with d. I am going. Sen gidiyorsun. You are going. O gidiyor. Biz gidiyoruz. We are going. Siz gidiyorsunuz. Onlar gidiyor lar. They are going. Similarly, t of seyret changes to d. I am watching. Sen seyrediyorsun.

You are watching. O seyrediyor. Biz seyrediyoruz. We are watching. Siz seyrediyorsunuz. Onlar seyrediyor lar. They are watching. It is used with nouns or adjectives to form a verb. I am making a call. Kahvalt ediyorsun. You are having breakfast. Dans ediyor. She is dancing. There are also shortened ones. Here are some examples: seyretmek seyir etmek to watch kaybetmek kayp etmek to lose zannetmek zan etmek to assume, to think sabretmek sabr etmek to be patient Seyrediyoruz. You are losing. They assume. I am being patient. All the other verb stems ending with t keep their original spelling as t although a suffix starting with a vowel is added after t, such as:.

The bird is singing. Film bitiyor. The movie is finishing. Gne batyor. The sun is setting. Araba itiyorum. I am pushing a car. Ayegl her gn ne yapyor ne yapmyor? What does Ayegl do and what doesn't she do every day? Ayegl her gn genellikle altda kalkyor. Kahvaltdan nce du alyor, sonra giyiniyor. Daha sonra kahvalt yapyor. Kahvaltda peynir ve ekmek yiyor, ay iiyor. St de seviyor. Reel ve tereya sevmiyor. Kahvaltdan sonra, kahve yapyor ve kahve iiyor. Biraz televizyon seyrediyor. Daha sonra otobse biniyor ve ie gidiyor.

Ayegl Trk Telekom'da alyor. Akam otobse binmiyor. Eve yryor. Altda eve geliyor. Biraz bahede oturuyor. Yemek yiyor, televizyon seyrediyor. Akamlar, genellikle evde oturuyor. Bazen arkadalar geliyor, dar kyorlar. Bir yerde oturuyorlar, sohbet ediyorlar. Saat on birde yatyor. Cumartesi ve pazar gnleri almyor. First, we're eating a meal, later we're drinking tea. We chat before noon. Kahvaltdan nce du alyorum. I take a shower before breakfast. On birden sonra uyuyorum. I sleep after eleven. Kahvaltdan sonra kyorum. I go out after breakfast.

Time expressions Time expressions are generally used at the beginning of a sentence. We are watching television at the moment. Yarn Trkiye'ye gidiyoruz. We are going to Turkey tomorrow. Gelecek hafta evleniyoruz. We are getting married next week. Two days later, it is holiday. Hafta sonu ne yapyorsun? What are you doing at the weekend? Her gn yzyorum. I swim am swimming every day. Bugn souk. Today is cold. Sabahlar erken kalkyorum. I get up early in the mornings. Akamleyin gryoruz. We see each other in the evening. Card Range To Study through. YOK 2.

According To. İLERİ 2. OLAY 2. HAVA 2. HEP 2. All Right. TAMAM 2. HEM DE. TOP 2. VARİL 2. TABAN 2. EN İYİ. HESAP 3. MAVİ 2. TAHTA 3. SON 2.

Poem of the Masses

EYLEM 2. TATLI yiyecek. ELMAS 2. SAYI 2. DOSYA 2. SERT 2. TANE snowflake : kar tanesi. MEZAR 2. KALP 2. HAKİM 2. SU meyve suyu v. EN AZ. SOL 2. Letter Box. BENİM 2.

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