However, this study serves to demonstrate that emerging and appropriate methodologies are possible to apply and put into practice in every context MA in Applied Linguistics with TESOL dissertation 31 Pia C. First of all, since it is a case study there is a particular issue related to generalizing the outcomes because of the limited number of participants.
Furthermore, limited time was available for carrying out the study, which restricted the possibilities of going deeper into certain issues. Moreover, the remote location of the subject group limited the data collection to be done in a row with a very restricted agenda, almost without leaving time for many changes. By nature, case studies provide an in-depth description of a particular phenomenon whose main focus is to delve into that reality by getting the insights of a specific situation in a real-life context, which existed prior to the research being conducted and would continue existing after the study has been done Yin, R.
In this particular study, a case study approach was chosen to allow a more detailed insight into the strategies employed by teachers to work on speaking skills with YLLs in their classrooms. Therefore, the first phase of the study attempts to answer the research questions. Secondly, the researcher attempted to collect their opinions, perceptions, emotions and experiences of their own reality Descombe, The participants were contacted through phone calls and emails to obtain their voluntary participation.
Later, the researcher agreed to a date and availability for arranging the trip to Chile. In this study the interview utilized was semi-structured with questions constructed according to the research questions and the insights from literature. Like quantitative research, observations in terms of the qualitative approach are well planned and structured in their particular form, for instance counting with classroom observation checklists or an elaborated and fully planned scheme Brown, For the purposes of this case study, classroom observation was conducted with the help of a scheme that matches the focus of this study Nunan, Moreover, a special space for listing, where appropriate, was provided in case, new strategies or alternative strategies were employed by the teachers.
The classroom observation scheme can be found on appendix 2. What is more important, the study allowed the observation in real context of the performance of the strategies mentioned in the school project as well the ones mentioned in the interviews with teachers. The categories are subdivided from the research instrument they arouse. Moreover, they also represent the main works of teaching young learners, speaking skills and the issue of large classes Brewster et al.
Halliwell, ; Pinter, ; Linse, ; Moon, ; among others. Relevant quotes from the participants will also be provided to exemplify each point. Furthermore, each table is constructed under the categories and subcategories raised from the analysis of each research instrument. They are separated into different tables.
The definition of each code can be found in appendix 3. Summarizes the categories, subcategories and codes obtained after the classroom observation analysis. In this section categories and subcategories will be defined. The codes are explained in appendix 3.
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Table 3 Summary of the categories, subcategories and corresponding codes takes from the analysis of the classroom observation data. This category can be understood as the tasks teachers perform to enhance the speaking skills practice of their young learners in their classroom. This definition has been constructed in terms of Brewster et al. Teachers employed a wide variety of them as a way to make students speak.
They are also used at different stages of the class, especially at the beginning and at the end. This subcategory also contains the following codes: flashcards, questions and answers, songs, children asking the teacher questions, games, drills, spelling, descriptions, performing short dialogues and chanting.
The course book includes a wide variety of activities such as listening to dialogues or pictures stories that students listen to first. Often, after students have listened to the dialogues, teachers encourage them to go to the front of the class and perform the dialogues orally with their classmates. This subcategory is constructed by two codes: listen to stories and listen to music. They did not start their lessons unless the class was in silence. Moreover, when asking students questions, teachers asked children to be quiet.
If they were not listening, teachers scolded them. Summarizes the categories, subcategories and codes that emerged after the data analysis. Categories and subcategories will be explained in this section, meanwhile codes will be mentioned. The explanation of each code will be found in appendix 3.
Table 4 Summary of the categories that arouse from the data analysis of the interviews. Large Classes Large classes are classrooms with more than forty or fifty students in which the physical equipment and space are not enough Coleman, Both teachers in this case study give their lessons in LC; their classes are compounded of forty-five children. They consider this situation as a limitation because of the number of students per class.
Chilean teachers also daily deal with the reality of large classrooms. In the context of the classroom, teachers are the ones responsible for many of the processes that take place in there. Young Learners This subcategory has emerged from the perceptions and the features teachers consider important when teaching their YLLs.
Both teachers demonstrated an interest in them and appreciated the potential of their children.
This subcategory compiles five codes such as: limited development of writing and reading skills, YLLs go through a silent period, YLLs are willing to participate, YLLs learn through repetitive activities, and the younger the better. Since they work under the guidelines of a private educational project, sometimes teachers combine activities from their personal repertoire with the ones of the school project.
In addition to that, it is also constructed considering the role the supervisor plays within the school. It also considers the importance the supervisor has for the teachers. This category also points out advantages and disadvantages commented on by the teachers.
Furthermore, the school project works independently from the Chilean Ministry of Education. One of the teachers believes this is an advantage. Furthermore, specifically for case studies, according to Yin and Descombe , reliability should not be assured as in experimental research, since case studies do not focus on the outcomes of the study, but on the processes, which were undertaken to produce those outcomes.
Statistical generalizations are appropriate in experimental research; meanwhile, analytical generalizations are for case studies. To address this issue, the data was double-coded with the help of second research. The summary of the agreement can be found in the appendix 3. However, this conception has evolved. To enhance the validation of this study, both instruments of data collection were piloted in advance before the actual application with the target participants was involved.
First of all, the interview was piloted with the help of a parallel teacher of English. However, changes were made and the subject did not express major problems in understanding and answering the questions. In the second part of the study, the classes were recorded and the observations were piloted with the parallel teachers who were teaching the same levels as the target teachers employing a preliminary scheme. After each pilot, the scheme was modified according to the notes made by the researcher and the necessities faced when observing the classes.
Moreover, consent forms appendix 6 were signed by the participants who agreed on participating in the interviews as well as being recorded as part of the class observation stage. The consent forms were given to the participants directly by the researcher. The research questions presented are in relation to unexplored areas of the teaching of young learners within the Chilean reality. Thus, its major strength is in relation to revealing a reality often unknown in Chile, as well as serving as a starting point for subsequent research on the teaching of speaking skills to YLLs.
Case studies provide the possibilities of deeply penetrating the reality of a particular context, in which the most important side of the study are the opinions, beliefs and perceptions participants have of reality or the reality they are living in. Therefore, the research methods employed such as interviews and class observations, which served as a way to accomplish the purpose of a case study approach. The codes and categories obtained from the data analysis emerged from both interviews and observations, which were related to issues discussed in the literature. The findings of this case study are presented according to each research question in section 4.
Detailed descriptions of the data analysis are provided. Moreover, the different steps followed in the data analysis process are illustrated in this section, proving the rationale behind each action. Since this study follows the qualitative approach, the focus is on providing detailed information on the data as well as the opinions, perceptions or feelings of the participants involved. The main findings of this empirical research are reported in relation to each of the research questions.
The transcription process helped to immerse the researcher deeply in the data. After doing the transcriptions, the data analysis proceeded by categorizing and assigning codes, which emerged from the interview transcripts, as well as complementary information taken from class observations and the scheme employed.
Furthermore, to check the preliminary codes obtained after two coding processes from the researcher, the use of computer software called Transana 2. Finally, from the crossing of both coding processes, the definite categories, subcategories and codes were organized in a table see section 3. In addition to that, and to increase the consistency as well as the inter-rater reliability of the study, the data was double-coded by a second researcher with a The organization of the data analysis in this section will be presented following the argument and organization of it used by Smith and Warburton However, in research question one as well as research question four the analysis would be presented by intertwining data obtained from the interviews and class observations.
Teachers employed two ways of accomplishing this objective. Secondly, they put more emphasis on the speaking skills during the first school years from nursery school to Year 9. In this particular case, the course book and the syllabus required teachers to put speaking skills activities into practice to a greater extend in comparison to others skills to accomplish their main objective.
Main characteristics of the lessons observed. From what was observed in the lessons, both teachers used a wide variety of strategies to teach speaking skills to their young learners. It could be appreciated that the focus on the oral skill was mainly concentrated on the first fifteen and the last ten minutes of the lessons. The rationale behind this is mainly related to how the project designed the classes, which are divided into five steps.
During the activity stage, the oral production decreases for a while and children work on more grammar and individual exercises. Finally, the classes finish with a summary of the class and the round-up, which should also be done through a communicative activity like singing a song, or playing a game, for instance. Figure 1 provides a summary of the most commonly observed strategies used by teachers when working on speaking skills with YLLs Year 3. In regard to Year 3, one of the most salient strategies employed by the teacher was related to asking and answering questions at the beginning of the class.
Surprisingly, to a lesser extent songs and action songs, which are well-known for being the most commonly used strategy to foster speaking skills Yuliana, ; Halliwell, are employed on fewer occasions than the activities mentioned above. Indeed, they do not differ from the ones employed in Year 3 to a great extent. Moreover, in year 6, the strategy most commonly employed by the teacher also corresponds to the answering, asking questions and drilling.
Perhaps the rationale behind the use of these activities at this level and not before Year 3 is related to the age and the linguistics maturity older learners have acquired Pinter, Interviews In the data taken from the interviews, teachers expressed their reasons for using these kinds of activities. Moreover, both teachers claimed that even though the project is well designed, the course book is interesting and they receive support from the project.
They are the only ones who know their students and know how they are going to react to certain activities. For instance, they emphasized the fact that they often have to adapt the proposed strategies. Every class was based on the use of the course book and its exercises, which are the main tool the project has to unify the English lessons.
The alternative strategies detected were discussed in section 4. Moreover, one of the teachers pointed out that is not always possible to follow the school project. In some circumstances, depending on the content or the class, they decide when to use the guidelines or the activities they feel are better for their learners.
In addition, their experience accumulates the aid and the tools provided by a former project.
This issue arose as a limitation to both teachers, since the policies seem difficult to put into practice in a real context. For instance, activities like oral presentations, which are often suggested as a technique for practising speaking skills, are considered a limitation in relation to how many times that activity can be used in the classroom. For these teachers it is hard to listen to forty-five students one by one. Teacher may spend a long time listening to each pupil.
This would produce problems with class behaviour and noise. Therefore, that strategy is used only once a term. Teachers pointed out that the lack of time for preparing material does not allow them to keep creating and put into practice new activities as the school project or the supervisor asks them to do. Main characteristics of the lessons observed From the analysis of the schemata both teachers demonstrated the use of alternative strategies in their lessons.
In addition, in Year 3, the teacher does not only use the songs that are included in the course book. When planning her lessons, she looks for songs she has been accumulating throughout her experience and that are related to the topics.
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In two out of three classes observed, the Year 3 teacher used complementary visual aids support. In the first class she stuck a big poster on the whiteboard with the alphabet to sing the ABC song. In the third observed lesson, to sing a song related to colours, the same teacher pasted a big stave on the wall in which, instead of music notes, there were dots arranged according to the colours mentioned in the song. These seemed to motivate children, because all of them wanted to go to the front of the class to sing the song. Innovative activities are very important.
When discussing personal experience, one of the teachers said that one of her alternative strategies was to increase the contents seen in the course book. According to the supervisor, this is a special peculiarity of this school only. That also creates a very relaxed atmosphere and it helps them to start speaking in English. In general, a wide variety of alternative strategies to teach speaking skills in their large classes was not observed. In general, teachers did not face many problems, since the activities employed in the English lessons are simple, easy and achievable for both teachers and learners.
Some of them were not directly related to teaching speaking skills, but they do have an impact on this skill. First of all, since both teachers involved in the research have an important difference in terms of their years of teaching experience, there is a clear implication of the way they manage their classrooms. Moreover, the teacher with more experience remarked that apart from English itself, she does not have major problems when working with speaking skills in her lessons.
This was verified during the observation of her classes, where she looked confident and the children showed great interest in the subject. Children were willing to participate. When they were asked to go in front of the class to sing or perform a poem, the great majority of students in her class raised their hands to take part in the activity. However, from what was observed, in the classes of the more experienced teacher Year 3 , children were willing to listen to each other and when the pupils were too noisy, the teacher was strong enough to raise her voice to make students quiet and listen to each other.
Moreover, the teacher did not continue asking questions if the children were too noisy to listen to each other. Sometimes, teachers encountered problems in carrying out oral presentations, which means having one pupil presenting in front of the class while the rest must be quiet. She seems to have more problems, perhaps not only with speaking skills, but also with classroom behaviour and noise, which affect the development of activities enhancing speaking skills. Moreover, this teacher seems to encounter problems with oral presentations as well. She knows that if pupils do not feel at ease with the speaking activity, they would not be able to effectively develop speaking skills.
However, it is a rare example within the Chilean context. Finally, the results of this study in relation to the problems encountered by teachers when teaching speaking skills, showed some differences compared to what the literature on large classes argues see section 2. It will be divided into two areas of the main findings. Firstly, the teaching of speaking skills to YLLs, which is subdivided into appropriate pedagogical skills to teach YLLs English, successful methodology, techniques and materials to teach speaking skills to YLLs, and effective teaching speaking skills to YLLs in large classes.
Moreover, the influence of the context underpinning this study will be treated. Afterwards, suggestions for future teaching practise will be given. Finally, implications for further research in the field of teaching speaking skills to YLLs will be discussed. In their everyday teaching practice these teachers represent the qualities of a good primary teacher since they are confident about the language skills and have an exhaustive understanding of how children learn Brumfit, Moreover, the teachers of this school are not particularly different from other Chilean teachers.
However, with time and proper instruction, both of them learned how to work with children. In other words, as this teacher argues, with good guidance and training teachers may become good primary teachers. Nevertheless, in this study teachers do not encounter this problem because they are specialists.
Both of them demonstrated that they could conduct a class fully spoken in English by using simple language. Indeed, they might make some mistakes, but at the same time they managed to be successful. Different from the reality of many primary schools in which teachers, because of noise or other issues, prefer to ignore communicative activities Careless, , one of the main findings of this case study was the evidence left by teachers through the class observations of the wide variety of activities they employed to teach speaking skills to their YLs.
Children are by nature enthusiastic and charming Harmer, They love entertaining themselves, and they learn by playing with language Halliwell, ; Moon, During the class observations teachers employed activities such as: performing short dialogues, singing songs, chanting, riddles, TPR songs, drilling, use of formulaic questions, games and descriptions, among others. These tasks enhance their exploration of the world by creatively using their imagination. Brumfit et al. However, in the school fun activities are presented in the class with a restricted time, which benefits both teachers and children.
As a result, children were not happy in their classes and often afraid. In the classroom observations of this study, however, children looked happy and motivated every time the teachers introduced a new activity, with the great majority of the pupils eager to participate by raising their hands. They emphasise that for successful results children should be confident and at ease with the speaking activity, otherwise they would not want to try it and would feel threatened in the English language lesson.
In regard to the Chilean reality, Inostroza conducted questionnaires and interviews see section 2. The teachers of this study relate these difficulties to the limitations they have in dedicating time to each student. Lo Castro found that within the main pedagogical difficulty encountered by Japanese teachers, there were activities involving speaking and receptive skills, because according to the teachers, they were harder to get done.
Additionally, Hsiao discovered that it was difficult to give more chances for students to practise. Moreover, Careless reported that teachers did not want to work on communicative skills, because they were more demanding and they brought noise and discipline problems as well. This case study is a good example of how teachers are effectively able to put speaking activities in their large classes into practice.
During this stage, the teachers ask children questions, they answer back and sometimes they ask the teacher questions like: P: Miss Ximena, have you got a pet? P: What pet have you got? Moreover, in Year 6 the teacher took time to play with her learners and perform short dialogues in front of the class. During the activities she allowed children to make a little noise she could manage.
One of the teachers actually used a whistle to make students quiet and the other one had a flashcard with a stop sign. Therefore, to practise speaking skills, teachers also need to have good control of their classroom management. Even though none of the participants mentioned in the interviews neither the teachers nor the supervisor received any special training in speaking skills, teachers demonstrated the use of appropriate and meaningful activities for YLs that comply with literature see section 2. This project is regarded as an advantage for teachers.
It is different from the one provided by the Chilean Ministry of Education and has the peculiarity of children starting to learn English since they are in nursery school. This seems to be something that makes teachers happy and special within the Chilean teaching reality. Often English projects, the syllabus and even the governmental curriculum to teach in EFL contexts seem a bit ambitious, since they are too demanding for the teacher. For example, teachers, as in this case study, commented that sometimes they cannot use English during the whole lesson.
Therefore, meeting the requirements of the syllabus also presents a difficulty to teachers Moon, ; Inostroza, First of all, teachers are not allowed to speak in Spanish, not even to clarify doubts. Secondly, teachers have to follow a determined structure to carry out their lessons, and finally they have to put the communicative activities of the course book into practice, among others.
However, to cope with their work, especially in relation to teaching speaking skills, teachers commented in the interviews that they follow the textbook, but when they feel it is necessary, they adapt the activities or change them with others they think are more appropriate.
Similarly, Rixon argues that teachers should adapt the ideas they find by detecting which language features are meaningful to what they are teaching. Therefore, it seems inevitable that teachers adapt the project guidelines, because it is also the way teachers deal with the problems they encountered when applying the MA in Applied Linguistics with TESOL dissertation 60 Pia C.
Most of their parents have dropped out of primary or secondary school and almost none of them have received education in a second language. Therefore, outside the school or the English class, pupils do not have opportunities to use or practise what they have learnt during the lessons. Thus, although children are motivated and have the additional help of the school project, the results are limited mainly because some of them do not see the advantages that learning a foreign language will bring to their lives.
According to Nikolov see section 2. They therefore do not perceive it as a useful tool for interaction in the future. This case study would serve as an example to support what scholars have discussed about the issues of appropriate methodologies and activities that must be employed with YLLs. However, since this case study represents an uncommon reality in Chile, it suggests that good results can be obtained with accurate instruction, support and appropriate materials regardless of its social context.
Furthermore, since teachers have to teach within the contexts of large classes, this case study would be useful for those sharing the same context that may believe that because of class size limitations, innovative and effective classes cannot be achieved in those contexts. Thus, this case study would serve as a starting point for other research studies in the field of YLLs by offering a picture of appropriate teaching practices to work on the speaking skills with YLLs. Teachers or future researchers could take the results of this case study and see how practical and successful the methodology employed in this study is in other contexts.
Perhaps, schools from the same area might benefit from the teaching practices revealed in this case study in case they would be interested in starting to teach English to their YLLs. Moreover, it can help school administrators, teachers or syllabus designers to get general guidelines of a project that has been carried out in the same school for four years.
It is relevant to point out that because this is a case study, generalizations about the findings of this study must be done carefully. Santiago de Chile: ME, d. Acceso en: 28 mzo. Santiago de Chile: ME, e. Acceso en: 08 nov. Directorio oficial de establecimientos: centro de estudios. Santiago de Chile: ME, Acceso en: 22 abr.
Habilidades TIC en estudiantes: enlaces. Acceso en: Acceso en: 08 nov. Me conecto: me conecto para aprender. Santiago de Chile: ME,a. Santiago de Chile: ME, c. Santiago de Chile: ME, b. Santiago de Chile: ST, Acceso en: 24 my. Research methods in education. London: New York: Routledge, Colombia aprende: la red del conocimiento.
Acceso en: 09 nov. Research design: qualitative, auantitative, and mixed methods approaches. California: Sage, What is special about L3 processing? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, v. EF English proficiency index. Boston: [s. The psycholinguistics of bilingualism. West-Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, Memorias… Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile: INE, Acceso en: 30 mzo.
The input hypothesis: issues and implications. UK: Longman, Evaluation of a rural self-learning English program in Chile. Enjoy Teaching Journal, v. Rural development: contemporary issues and practices. Kolkata: InTech, Proceedings of the… Granada: [s. Improvising rural education system: a digitalized step towards development.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. PISA results in focus resumen ejecutivo. Paris: OECD, Generador de escala de notas: escala de notas. Approaches and methods in language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press, A gaze on rural education according to scientific discourses during the last decade. Procedia, v.
Barcelona: Ediciones B, Enhancing ICT access for rural transformation. Acceso en: 26 mayo. Barcelona: Gedisa, DGCS Italia. Roma: FAO, That means that the program could be perfectly understood. The Ministry of Education does not have the information related to the creators, the theoretical-methodological basis, the creation process, etc. It can be authorized by the provincial department of education. The certificates are obtained after a basic specialized training by the Ministry of Education. The teaching material gets adapted and its contents are evaluated on a different form.
Only the San Marcos school had students that had been diagnosed with special needs five to twelve. Andrea Lizasoain C. Her research is about teaching-learning of English with a linguistic and pedagogical perspective. Her research areas are theatre translation, gender studies and English teaching-learning through drama techniques. She is teaching English Language Communication and she works in the area of school coexistence. It was afterwards edited by native speaker of English, Andrew Sigerson.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Services on Demand Journal. Introduction and case analysis Over the last few years, some Chilean rural contexts have been urbanized, allowing greater access to knowledge, job opportunities, and healthcare coverage.
Digital Literacy Literacy is a set of linguistic and cognitive mechanisms contributing to participation in different discursive practices. Related to this, […] to acquire knowledge from some sources, to investigate with critical spirit, to deliberate, to explore the very sources, to compose the details of a puzzle to transform it to a unit of meaning, all of this we must do by ourselves in order to know how to do it one day. Teachers Six teachers participated. Students The achievements of 76 students between the ages of 10 and 12 were measured.
Investigation Tools Input and Output Tests The input and output tests were implemented at the beginning and at the end of the first academic semester. Analysis and Results The input and output tests were revised using the same correction notes and the same scoring range, the latter obtained by the scoring generator Pumarino Learning Achievements The input test showed the dominance of some contents, such as numbers and colors, and the lack of knowledge of more complex topics, such as prepositions. Implementation in the Classroom The classroom observations revealed that every teacher was implementing the ImT tool according to their local context and their training preparation.
Some examples drawn from the classroom observations by the investigators are presented below: Teacher 3: Si no entendieron, podemos retroceder el video. Only L1 Teacher 5: How are you today? Discussion and Conclusions On the basis of these considerations, the need to compare quantitative and qualitative variables arose in order to test possible correlations. Limited L1 use.
Low teacher intervention. Los Tallos 0. Mainly L1 used. Lago Pellaifa 0. San Marcos 0. Mainly FL used. L1 y FL used proportionally. La Escondida 0. Immediate translation lo L1. Cui Cui 0. The Office of English Language Programs supports public diplomacy outreach through English language teaching and training in Chile. These are free 5-week online courses designed for non-native English language teachers and open to an unlimited number of participants.
The program offers both facilitated and self-directed MOOCs. For more information, please click here. The English Access Microscholarship Program Access provides a foundation of English language skills to bright, economically disadvantaged students, primarily aged 13 to 20, in their home countries.
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